Calling Workshop

Learning Styles
(Compiled by Dottie Welch, 2000, for a Leader Workshop)
A pdf version is available.
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TYPES OF MOTIVATION

ACHIEVEMENT Desire to achieve some goal

POWER Desire to obtain power or status

SOCIAL Desire to enhance social recognition

GREGORIC MODEL OF LEARNING

PERCEPTION:

CONCRETE This mind is most comfortable registering information directly through the five senses of sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing. Prefers to deal with the tangible and obvious.

ABSTRACT -- This mind is most comfortable using the intellect to conceive ideas and using intuition and the imagination to look beyond what is obvious to understand the more subtle implications.

ORDERING:

SEQUENTIAL This mind prefers to organize information in a linear, step-by-step manner, to follow a logical train of thought and to have a plan and follow it.

RANDOM This mind prefers to organize information by chunks with no particular sequence. This type may skip steps or begin at the middle or end and work backward to achieve the desired result.



CONCRETE SEQUENTIAL: CONCRETE RANDOM:
-- want facts -- want to test for themselves
-- work step by step-- solve problems creatively
-- pay attention to details-- learn only what is necessary
-- prefer having a schedule-- work in a general time frame
-- interpret literally-- use insight and instinct
-- like an established routine-- act on the spur of the moment
-- like a neat, orderly environment-- like frequent changes in environment


ABSTRACT SEQUENTIAL: ABSTRACT RANDOM:
-- want exact, correct information-- want broad, general principles
-- gather data then decide-- decide with the heart, not the head
-- want to know the source of facts-- ask for advice
-- need sufficient time for a thorough job-- unstructured and free-flowing
-- use logical reasoning-- consider others feelings
-- want an opportunity for analysis-- spontaneous and flexible
-- organized filer of information-- people are more important than things   BACK

MEMORY STYLES:

WITKIN MODEL OF APPROACHES TO UNDERSTANDING:

ANALYTIC GLOBAL
--focus is on details-- focus is on the overall picture
-- prefers learning alone-- cooperates in group efforts
-- need neatness to concentrate-- can function amid clutter
-- can ignore distractions-- easily distracted
-- dislikes interruptions-- tempted to procrastinate
-- works on one thing at a time-- does several things at once
-- wants to be prepared-- flexible and goes with the flow
-- self-motivated-- learns by discussion
-- wants a way to evaluate quality-- avoids individual competition
-- wants to correct mistakes-- takes criticism personally
-- logical and organized-- may skip steps and details

Analytic learners listen first for details and often remember exact words but sometimes miss the grand plan. They figure you have to clearly understand the parts to eventually understand the whole. Global learners listen first for what is to be done then want to find out how to do it. They view all the parts as being related and only clarify details after they understand where it fits in the whole picture. Therefore directions need to be given in a general sense first and then in specifics, then summarized if both are to benefit.   BACK



TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE:

VERBAL-LINGUISTIC These people are good at writing, speaking and debating. They like to read, play word games, get into involved discussions, tell jokes, and make up stories.
Ex. Robert MacNeil, Peter Gzowski

LOGICAL-MATHEMATICAL These people are good at mathematics and science, and are able to see patterns and relationships. They like to experiment, solve puzzles and enjoy a challenging problem.
Ex. Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, Bill Gates

VISUAL-SPATIAL These people are good at art, architecture and drafting. They think in images and pictures and are very aware of objects, shapes, colors and patterns in their environment. They like to draw, make designs, do jigsaw puzzles, and read maps.
Ex. Robert Bateman, Frank Lloyd Wright, Pablo Picasso

BODILY-KINESTHETIC These people have a keen body awareness and include those skillful with their hands such as surgeons and mechanics, those who bring art to life such as actors and dancers, and those who are good in sports activities. They enjoy physical games, need to see things done, need to be actively involved and find it difficult to sit still for long.
Ex. Karen Kain, Kurt Browning, Kristi Yamaguchi, Wayne Gretzsky, Tiger Woods

MUSICAL-RHYTHMIC These people are sensitive to sounds and good with music and rhythmic patterns.
Ex. Anne Murray, Paul McCartney

INTERPERSONAL -- These people are good at understanding, appreciating and getting along well with other people. They like team activities and are skilled in conflict resolution.
Ex. Ministers, Counselors

INTRAPERSONAL These people are strongly self-aware and inwardly motivated. They work well alone and use their creative abilities and intuition to produce well-thought-out opinions and ideas.
Ex. Lucy Maud Montgomery, Emily Dickinson

NATURALIST These people are good at grouping items by common characteristics and patterns. They are aware of subtle differences in appearance, texture and sound.
Ex. Charles Darwin, Roger Tory Peterson   BACK

BRAIN DOMINANCE:

CONCENTRATION:

SOUND -- Some need quiet and solitude, others need music and action.
LIGHT -- We need enough light to avoid eye-strain without it being too bright.
HEAT -- Being too hot or too cold can destroy concentration.
FOOD -- Hunger or thirst can destroy concentration.
TIME OF DAY -- Peak performance hours vary from person to person.
          Are you a morning person or a night owl?   BACK

PHYSICAL DIFFERENCES:

LEARNING HOW YOU AND OTHERS LEARN:

  1. Observe the conditions that lead to success
  2. Listen to the way a person communicates.
  3. Experiment with various approaches.
  4. Focus on strengths.
  5. Learn to recognize various learning styles.   BACK

SUCCESSFUL LEARNERS USE THE FOLLOWING MEMORY AIDS:

  1. Understand the underlying idea.
  2. Translate the action into a personal set of words or mental picture or feel.
  3. Review frequently.
  4. Group like things together so that knowledge can be transferred.
  5. Apply a known concept to help learn a related skill.
  6. Find ways to differentiate similar concepts.
  7. Experience error-free practice and avoid repeating mistakes.  BACK


REFERENCE:
The Way They Learn, by Cynthia Ulrich Tobias, Tyndale House Publishers, 1994
ISBN 1-56179-414-7