by Boonsong Lekagul & Philip D. Round (1991).
Lacks obvious white in wings or tail (a few individuals rarely show a small white patch at base of primaries).
Adult: upperparts rufous-brown to grey-brown, depending on race, with sharply contrasted face pattern of black mask, white supercilium and whitish forehead. Rump, upper tail coverts and tail brighter rufous than rest of upperparts.
Juvenile: feathers of upperparts scaled with thin blackish subterminal bars and edged buffy. Shows some dark scaling on sides of breast and flanks. Mask blackish brown and supercilium buffy, usually not extending on to forehead.
Adults of race L. c. lucionensis are duller grey-brown on back, with an ashy-grey crown and nape, less sharply defined from supercilium and forehead, and with rump and upper tail coverts pale rufous. In immature, pattern similar, but more subdued.
Voice: a harsh, staccato chak-ak- ak-ak-ak; also high-pitched squawking notes. Occasionally gives soft, chuckling subsong.
Habitat: open country, including both dry areas and paddies, marshes; scrub country, gardens. Chiefly lower elevations but up to 2000 m on passage. Very common winter visitor.