The Name Henderson is the modern version of an ancient Scottish patronymic; that is, a name derived when children of the first generation are known as their father's sons (Henry's sons). In the next step, it becomes a single name (Henrison) and then the name becomes a permanent surname.
We are aware on the basis of Henderson family lore of several fathers named Henry who passed their name in this fashion. Some day we may find that there was a single source, but for now we will be content to study the various roots and branches of the Henderson family tree.
Henry means "Home Ruler." In Gaelic it is Eanruig, and the surname was MacEanruig (pronounced MacEnrick) while some other versions were MacHendry, MacHenry, MacKendrick, MacKenrick, MacKendry. I am using the Gaelic Mac, which means "son", although it is regularly shortened to Mc or M'. In Old English it is Henrie, and family names include Hendry, Hendrie, Henryson, Henrisoun, Hendron and d'Handresson. In this study [website], we will use Henderson to avoid confusion.