Viscount Kenmure's Regiment of Foot was raised as a Royalist
regiment for service during the 1689 Jacobite uprisings in
Scotland against William III who had recently deposed James II.
The McCullochs of Ardwall in Galloway were closely related by
marriage to the powerful Gordon family, and Captain John
McCulloch of Ardwall, first cousin to Viscount Kenmure, commanded
a company of the Regiment at the disastrous Battle of
Killiecrankie, 1689. Though General Hugh Mackay's Royalist
forces were soundly beaten in the battle, the unfortunate death
of John Graham of Claverhouse (more popularly known as "Bonnie
Dundee") broke the backbone of the Scottish insurrection before
it could really get started.
The battle was fought on the 27 July 1689 between 4,500 Royalist troops under Mackay against Claverhouse at the head of some 2,500 Highlanders. Claverhouse had outmaneuvered Mackay into a disadvantageous position, a small plain at the foot of the hills of Killiecrankie Pass.
McCulloch's regiment was drawn up just to the left of the Royalist artillery placed in the centre which couldn't be elevated high enough to play on the Highlanders on the heights. The latter swept down from their high ground quickly routing the Royalist forces, who lost 2000 killed and wounded and another 500 who were taken prisoner. When Mackay withdrew to Stirling Castle he had only 400 unarmed men remaining with him.
Whether Captain McCulloch was killed or taken prisoner at this battle we don't know, but his Colonel, Viscount Kenmure, survived for Gordon chose to support James II the next time round during The Jacobite Uprising of 1715 (a choice prompted no doubt from his experiences at Killiecrankie!) and was executed for his part in the unsuccessful rebellion.