ISO-Latin-1 Characters and Character Entities.

          NOTE that not all computers can show all of these characters. Some may try to substitute the closest thing and others will treat the characters as lower ASCII characters with 128 subtracted from the code you use (depending on whether 7-bit or 8-bit transmission is in use). One model of Wyse terminal supports MOST of the extended characters and uses a thick backwards question-mark for those characters it doesn't support.

Table of printable Latin-1 Character codes.

[Image of a table of the printable ISO-8859-1 characters]

The Printable Low Half of the ISO-8859-1 Character Set:

Hexadecimal              Characters              Decimal
20 to 2F      ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /     32 to  47
30 to 3F    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?     48 to  63
40 to 4F    @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O     64 to  79
50 to 5F    P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _     80 to  95
60 to 6F    ` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o     96 to 111
70 to 7E    p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ~      112 to 126
                                          (127 is a control character)

Note that, on a web page,
" has to be represented by &quot; or &#34; if there could be any confusion about its usage,
& has to be represented by &amp; or &#38;,
< has to be represented by &lt; or &#60;, and
> has to be represented by &gt; or &#62;.

Character Entities for High ISO Latin-1 Characters

Entity name    Numeric entity    How they look    Description
&nbsp;      &#160;      and       No-break space
&iexcl;     &#161;    ¡ and ¡     Inverted exclamation mark
&cent;      &#162;    ¢ and ¢     Cent symbol
&pound;     &#163;    £ and £     British pound symbol
&curren;    &#164;    ¤ and ¤     General currency symbol
&yen;       &#165;    ¥ and ¥     Japanese yen symbol
&brvbar;    &#166;    ¦ and ¦     Broken (vertical) bar
&sect;      &#167;    § and §     Section sign
&uml;       &#168;    ¨ and ¨     Umlaut (dieresis)
&copy;      &#169;    © and ©     Copyright sign
&ordf;      &#170;    ª and ª     Ordinal indicator (feminine)
&laquo;     &#171;    « and «     Left angle quote
&not;       &#172;    ¬ and ¬     Not sign
&shy;       &#173;     ­ and ­      Soft hyphen (line break only)
&reg;       &#174;    ® and ®     Registered sign
&macr;      &#175;    ¯ and ¯     Macron
&deg;       &#176;    ° and °     Degree sign
&plusmn;    &#177;    ± and ±     Plus-or-minus sign
&sup2;      &#178;    ² and ²     Superscript two
&sup3;      &#179;    ³ and ³     Superscript three
&acute;     &#180;    ´ and ´     Acute accent
&micro;     &#181;    µ and µ     Micro sign
&para;      &#182;    ¶ and ¶     Pilcrow (paragraph sign)
&middot;    &#183;    · and ·     Middle dot sign
&cedil;     &#184;    ¸ and ¸     Cedilla
&sup1;      &#185;    ¹ and ¹     Superscript one
&ordm;      &#186;    º and º     Ordinal indicator (masculine)
&raquo;     &#187;    » and »     Right angle quote
&frac14;    &#188;    ¼ and ¼     One fourth fraction
&frac12;    &#189;    ½ and ½     One half fraction
&frac34;    &#190;    ¾ and ¾     Three fourth fraction
&iquest;    &#191;    ¿ and ¿     Inverted question mark
&Agrave;    &#192;    À and À     Capital A, grave accent
&Aacute;    &#193;    Á and Á     Capital A, acute accent
&Acirc;     &#194;     and      Capital A, circumflex accent
&Atilde;    &#195;    à and à     Capital A, tilde accent
&Auml;      &#196;    Ä and Ä     Capital A, umlaut mark
&Aring;     &#197;    Å and Å     Capital A, ring mark
&AElig;     &#198;    Æ and Æ     Capital AE diphthong (ligature)
&Ccedil;    &#199;    Ç and Ç     Capital C, cedilla accent
&Egrave;    &#200;    È and È     Capital E, grave accent
&Eacute;    &#201;    É and É     Capital E, acute accent
&Ecirc;     &#202;    Ê and Ê     Capital E, circumflex accent
&Euml;      &#203;    Ë and Ë     Capital E, umlaut mark
&Igrave;    &#204;    Ì and Ì     Capital I, grave accent
&Iacute;    &#205;    Í and Í     Capital I, acute accent
&Icirc;     &#206;    Î and Î     Capital I, circumflex accent
&Iuml;      &#207;    Ï and Ï     Capital I, umlaut mark
&ETH;       &#208;    Ð and Ð     Capital Eth, Icelandic
&Ntilde;    &#209;    Ñ and Ñ     Capital N, tilde accent
&Ograve;    &#210;    Ò and Ò     Capital O, grave accent
&Oacute;    &#211;    Ó and Ó     Capital O, acute accent
&Ocirc;     &#212;    Ô and Ô     Capital O, circumflex accent
&Otilde;    &#213;    Õ and Õ     Capital O, tilde accent
&Ouml;      &#214;    Ö and Ö     Capital O, umlaut mark
&times;     &#215;    × and ×     Multiplication symbol
&Oslash;    &#216;    Ø and Ø     Capital O, slash
&Ugrave;    &#217;    Ù and Ù     Capital U, grave accent
&Uacute;    &#218;    Ú and Ú     Capital U, acute accent
&Ucirc;     &#219;    Û and Û     Capital U, circumflex accent
&Uuml;      &#220;    Ü and Ü     Capital U, umlaut mark
&Yacute;    &#221;    Ý and Ý     Capital Y, acute accent
&THORN;     &#222;    Þ and Þ     Capital Thorn, Icelandic
&szlig;     &#223;    ß and ß     Small sharp s, German (sz ligature)
&agrave;    &#224;    à and à     Small a, grave accent
&aacute;    &#225;    á and á     Small a, acute accent
&acirc;     &#226;    â and â     Small a, circumflex accent
&atilde;    &#227;    ã and ã     Small a, tilde accent
&auml;      &#228;    ä and ä     Small a, umlaut mark
&aring;     &#229;    å and å     Small a, ring mark
&aelig;     &#230;    æ and æ     Small ae diphthong (ligature)
&ccedil;    &#231;    ç and ç     Small c, cedilla accent
&egrave;    &#232;    è and è     Small e, grave accent
&eacute;    &#233;    é and é     Small e, acute accent
&ecirc;     &#234;    ê and ê     Small e, circumflex accent
&euml;      &#235;    ë and ë     Small e, umlaut mark
&igrave;    &#236;    ì and ì     Small i, grave accent
&iacute;    &#237;    í and í     Small i, acute accent
&icirc;     &#238;    î and î     Small i, circumflex accent
&iuml;      &#239;    ï and ï     Small i, umlaut mark
&eth;       &#240;    ð and ð     Small eth, Icelandic
&ntilde;    &#241;    ñ and ñ     Small n, tilde accent
&ograve;    &#242;    ò and ò     Small o, grave accent
&oacute;    &#243;    ó and ó     Small o, acute accent
&ocirc;     &#244;    ô and ô     Small o, circumflex accent
&otilde;    &#245;    õ and õ     Small o, tilde accent
&ouml;      &#246;    ö and ö     Small o, umlaut mark
&divide;    &#247;    ÷ and ÷     Division symbol
&oslash;    &#248;    ø and ø     Small o, slash
&ugrave;    &#249;    ù and ù     Small u, grave accent
&uacute;    &#250;    ú and ú     Small u, acute accent
&ucirc;     &#251;    û and û     Small u, circumflex accent
&uuml;      &#252;    ü and ü     Small u, umlaut mark
&yacute;    &#253;    ý and ý     Small y, acute accent
&thorn;     &#254;    þ and þ     Small thorn, Icelandic
&yuml;      &#255;    ÿ and ÿ     Small y, umlaut mark

Notes about some characters:

The following characters have some display characteristics not visible in the table above:

          'name' or 'number' -- 'character' -- notes.

          '&nbsp;' or '&#160;' -- ' ' -- no-break space -- displayed by lynx as an ordinary space, ' '. Use this when you don't want a line to break between two characters that have a space between them. If I objected to my name being broken between the "De" and the "Forest" I could use "De&#160;Forest" and I would be sure that a line break wouldn't separate the two if a conforming browser was used. It is also often used as padding to force multiple spaces to be displayed where the browser would otherwise condense multiple "white space" into a single space but, according to the HTML standards, this was not its intended use but a side-effect of browsers that didn't implement the standards strictly due to the ambiguity of the standards.

          '&shy;' or '&#173;' -- '­' '­' -- this is used where a long word could otherwise force a line break that displayed an unusually short line at the break due to the length of the next word. Assume a 40-column display and a browser that is trying to display the text (with no left margin):

One test for acidity uses phenolphthalein to indicate pH. Dipping litmus paper saturated with this into a solution will produce a blue colour or a pink colour depending....

Without the soft hyphen the text might be displayed on a 40-column screen like this: (lynx always forces at least two blank spaces at the end of a line)

One test for acidity uses
phenolphthalein to indicate pH. Dipping
litmus paper saturated with this into a
solution will produce a blue colour or
a pink colour depending....

Note the unusually short first line. The soft hyphen indicates where it is acceptable for a browser to break a word between syllables, "phenol-phthal-ein" without actually being displayed. The text could be entered as:

One test for acidity uses phenol&#173;phthal&#173;ein to indicate pH. Dipping litmus paper saturated with this into a solution will produce a blue colour or a pink colour depending....

On a 40-column screen, it would then display as:

A test for acidity uses phenolphthal-
ein to indicate pH. Dipping litmus
paper saturated with this into a
solution will produce a blue colour or
a pink colour depending....

          Some characters, when lynx has to approximate them because your computer does not have that character, have spaces in the approximation. Four characters in the chart above have this property.
'&frac14;' or '&#188;' -- '¼' -- fraction one-quarter,
'&frac12;' or '&#189;' -- '½' -- fraction one-half,
'&frac34;' or '&#190;' -- '¾' -- fraction three-quarters, and
'&times;' or '&#215;' -- '×' -- multiply sign
are approximated by lynx as ' 1/4', ' 1/2', ' 3/4', and ' * ' respectively with a leading space forced (and the multiply sign also has a forced trailing space). "55&#188;", "37&#189;", and ;66&#190;" become "55 1/4", "37 1/2", and "66 3/4" instead of "551/4", "371/2", and "663/4". "576&215;487" becomes "576 * 487" and NOT "576*487". (Some Greek characters are displayed by lynx with a following '*' such as "G*" for Gamma and it may be essential to distinguish a '*' character used to indicate a Greek letter and a '*' used as a substitute for the times sign.)

          '&Ccedil;' or '&#199;' -- 'Ç' -- capital C, cedilla. This character may not be displayed on the screen if the computer uses the IBM PC character set (code page 437) or code page 850 but the character will be included in any file printed with lynx and/or downloaded. This is not because of lynx but some terminal emulators treat character 128 as an unprintable ASCII NUL with the high bit set and the C cedilla is character 128 in the IBM PC (code page 437) and code page 850 character sets. I have not been able to test it but the possibility exists that character 128 on a Macintosh, the A umlaut, &Auml; might also exhibit this behaviour with some terminal programs.


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