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[Img-Gerrie Mackie PhD]

Government of Ontario

With salutations to
Prof. Dr. Gerald L. Mackie

Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax (SWCSMH)

      December 29, 2015                                      Awards & Important Personalities


Img-pin.gif  Education
Img-pin.gif  Positions held
Img-pin.gif  Professional memberships
Img-pin.gif  Teaching experience
Img-pin.gif  Research experience
Img-pin.gif  Select publications (there were several more)


Laurentian University 1968, B.Sc.
University of Ottawa 1971, M.Sc.
University of Ottawa 1973, Ph.D.

Positions held

1973-1974: Postdoctorate Fellow, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa
1974-1981: Assistant Professor, Department of Zoology, University of Guelph
1981-1988: Associate Professor, Department of Zoology, University of Guelph
1988-present: Full Professor, Department of Zoology, Univeristy of Guelph
1990-1997: President, Mackie and Associates Water Systems Analysts
1993-present: Partner (with Dr. Bruce Kilgour), Water Systems Analysts

Professional memberships

Member of the North American Benthological Society
Research Associate of National Museums of Canada
Member of Board of Directors, Quaternary Sciences Institute, University of Waterloo
Member of the Canadian Society of Zoologists
Member of the International Society of Limnologists
Member of the Canadian Society of Limnologists
Member of the American Malacological Union
Associate Editor of the Bulletin of the American Malacological Union
Co-Chair for Mollusca Subcommittee of COSEWIC

Teaching experience

"I have been on faculty in the Department of Zoology at the University of Guelph since 1974 and have been a full professor since 1988. I have taught, or am teaching, undergraduate courses in Introduction to Aquatic Environments, Invertebrate Zoology, Biology of Running Waters, Limnology and Oceanology, Biology of Polluted Waters, Field Ecology, Aquatic Biology, Projects in Advanced Zoology, Topics in Toxicology and Introductory Zoology, and graduate courses in Topics in Advanced Zoology and Biology of Freshwater Mollusca. I have supervised 21 M.Sc. and 4 Ph.D. students and am currently supervising 1 M.Sc. student. I have also served on the supervisory committees of 45 M.Sc. students and 7 Ph.D. students. "

Research experience

"I am a partner, with Mr. Bruce Kilgour, of Water Systems Analysts (WSA). This company was formed in 1989 (initially as Mackie & Associates Water Systems Analysts Inc.) with the specific objective of performing research to examine the utility of a variety of chemical, biological and physical agents for the control of the biofouling zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. For the past three years I have been conducting research on the biology, impact and control of zebra mussels in the Great Lakes and have written a review of the biology of zebra mussels for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. I have also written a book on the biology of Corbiculacean clams which includes the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, a similar bio-fouling mollusc found in the United States. I have co-authored a book with Renata Claudi under a contract with CRC Press to review and summarize the control of zebra mussels in industries and utilities."

"The contracts that have been completed under my direction for controlling zebra mussels include:

  1. Evaluating the efficacy of plasma pulse technology for controlling zebra mussels. A new technology that was shown to be useful for both proactive and reactive control of zebra mussel biofouling (see "Non-Refereed Publications; Government Publications for reference to final report for this study).
  2. Evaluating the efficacies of synthetic chemicals, including sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and Bulab 6002 and 6009 which are non-oxidizing quaternary ammonium compounds (produced by Buckman Laboratories Inc.), at 12 oC and 22oC for Ontario Hydro (value approx. $62,000). These studies were instrumental in developing the continuous and intermittent control strategies that industries and utilities now use for controlling zebra mussels in their raw water sipplies. Bulab 6002 is an effective chemical for killing zebra mussels and Buckman Laboratories are currently seeking permission to use it as a molluscicide. Hydrogen peroxide is also effective but is more expensive than chlorine and probably will not be a popular chemical of choice for controlling zebra mussels.
  3. Examining the efficacy and role of alum in removing veliger larvae from raw water supplies during the coagulation and flocculation stages for the Ontario Ministry of Environment.
  4. Investigating the toxicity of sodium metabisulfite and the accumulation of sulfur compounds in the tissues of adult mussels for the Tennessee Valley Authority.
  5. Determining the short-term and long-term efficacies of coatings, surface barriers and materials for resisting zebra/quagga mussel infestations using three criteria; numbers of mussels attaching, growth rate of attached mussels, and tenacity of attachment. Each product is tested first in the laboratory and then in the field (usually Lake Erie). I have also evaluated and made recommendations for use of different coatings on different structures in utilities for the Tennessee Valley Authority.
  6. As a subconsultant with numerous engineering firms, including Black & Veatch, Gilbert Commonwealth, Camp Dresser and McKee, Proctor and Redfern, Marshall Macklin Monahan Engineers, and Gore and Storrie, evaluating plant designs for zebra mussel infestations and making recommendations for control at nuclear power stations (e.g. Niagara Mohawk Nine Mile Point, Syracuse, NY), steel manufacturers (e.g. Stelpipe, Welland, Ontario; Caterpillar Inc., Mapleton, Illinois), breweries (e.g. Labatt, Montreal, Quebec), cement manufacturers (e.g. ESSROC, Picton, Ontario), chemical manufacturers (e.g. Polysar, Sarnia, Ontario; Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY), food and drug manufactures (e.g. Proctor & Gamble, Scranton, Pennsylvania), petroleum industries (e.g. Shell Oil, Corunna, Ontario), and water treatment plants (e.g. Clarke Water Treatment Plant, Metro Toronto, Ontario). I have also evaluated the potential for zebra mussel infestations at several facilities based on intake water chemistry data from lakes and rivers in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Illinois, New York, Ohio, and Tennessee.
  7. Developing protocols for controlling zebra mussels in Stelpipe, a company that manufactures steel pipes on the Welland Canal. We have been monitoring the efficacy of continuous and continuous-intermitent applications of chlorine at the facility since 1989.
  8. Implementing "Do-it-yourself" programs using a variety of continuous and intermitent chlorination strategies for controlling zebra mussel infestations at Quebec & Ontario Paper Company on the Welland Canal, Ontario and Labatt Breweries on the St. Lawrence River, Montreal, Quebec, Eastman Kodak, Rochester, and Polysar on the St. Clair River, Sarnia, Ontario. In this program we taught biologists and pumphouse operators on staff how to monitor the abundance of veliger larvae and how to evaluate the effectiveness of their chlorination programs.
  9. Performing several bioassays to determine the efficacies of different chemicals, including descalers, algicides, corrosion inhibitors and saline water, and heat all at a cost of approximately $2500 each. For heat we also determined the effect of 2.5 oC and 25 oC acclimation temperatures on time to death of zebra mussels at several different temperatures. We participated in a thermal backflushing program to control zebra mussels at Dunkirk Steam Station, Dunkirk, NY with Gilbert Commonwealth engineers.
  10. Participating in product development programs for five industries (names and details confidential) to develop products for controlling zebra mussels by electroshocking, low voltage A/C current, filtration and plasma pulse (pressure waves).
  11. Acting as technical advisor at a conference for evaluating the effectiveness of Deep Lake Water Cooling (DLWC) for eliminating potential biofouling problems by zebra mussels in a Lakewater Cooling System for downtown Toronto. The conference was sponsored by the Canadian Urban Institute and resulted in a report available from them for $25: 100 Queen St. W., 2nd Floor, West Tower, Toronto, Ontario M5H 2N1.
  12. Providing a list of information requirements for appraising the potential environmental impacts of a small hydro installation on the Mesima River in northern Ontario for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. The information requirements requested a need to address or describe: (i) numbers of sampling periods and the sampling periods, (ii) invertebrate sampling by habitat type, (ii) invertebrate drift, (iv) a specific sampling design proposal; and (v) fish, wildlife, and water quality requirements. Upon completion of the studies by an environmental consulting firm several reports were submitted and I was required to: (1) review and critique the invertebrate sampling design in relation to MNR sampling requirements; (2) review and critique the results and discussion section on invertebrates and relevant appendices, specifically addressing methods, statistical data analysis, results and interpretation of results; (3) review and critique the section on operational impacts covering hydrology and predicted operational impacts on invertebrate production in the different reaches of the stream; (4) review and critique of the section on invertebrate drift and the interpretation and conclusions drawn.
  13. Identifying and confirming identifications of freshwater Mollusca of North America, my primary expertise being with the Sphaeriidae clams.
  14. Performing research at the University of Guelph where I have several grants to examine variations in life history and demographic features of zebra mussels in the Great Lakes and the impact of zebra mussels on native clams and their role in increasing water clarity in Lakes Erie and St. Clair. Most of my current research is focusing on factors that affect the development rates of veliger larvae and the settling rates of postveliger larvae. This research has the objective of determining what the most cost-effective procedures are for the control of this pest organism."
"I was the first person to receive funding (from MOE) and report on the biology and impact of the zebra mussel in Lake St. Clair. This funding and my review of the biology, impact and control of zebra mussels in Europe (Mackie et al. 1989), which has had enormous readership with over 2100 copies (now in its fourth printing) being distributed throughout Canada and the United States, has had a major impact in the development of funding for research programs in the United States and Canada. I have served on three committees (NY Sea Grant, Buffalo, NY; Great Lakes Research Consortium (US), Syracuse NY; EPA, Saginaw, MI) to help prioritize their research efforts on zebra mussels. Ordinarily I give 2 or 3 seminars each year. I am a permanent member of the editorial board for the American Malacological Bulletin, a bulletin that publishes innovative research on molluscan fauna. I ordinarily review 20 to 30 research articles and 5 to 10 research proposals each year. Finally, and most recent (August 1998), I have been appointed co-chair for the Mollusca subcommittee of COSEWIC (Committee on the status of endangered wildlife in Canada)."

"I have conducted research in a variety of other fields including: benthic ecology; the ability of invertebrates and fish to tolerate and accumulate heavy metals; the effects of pesticides, acidification and other water chemistry variables on the composition and structure of benthic invertebrate communities, with emphasis on molluscan taxa. This research has focused mainly on demographic patterns in freshwater invertebrates and the environmental (physical, chemical and biological) factors that influence those patterns. The long term goals of this research is to predict changes in community structure from changes in the environment, particularly those of anthropogenic origin, such as acid precipitation, and increased loadings of sulphur and phosphorous. Historically, I have assumed the lead role in all the projects because of my expertise with macroinvertebrate communities. With this lead role, graduate students under my supervision were the first to provide definitive evidence that: (1) inter-annual variations in plankton and benthic community structure are greater in acid-stressed lakes than in circumneutral lakes; (2) seasonal and temporal changes in metal levels of zooplankton and benthos are attributable to succession of taxa with large inherent differences in the degree of calcification of their integuments, taxonomic composition of the planktonic and benthic communities, behaviour of some species, especially zooplankton which occupy waters of unusual chemistry above anoxic hypolimnia, lake acidity, and distance from large sources of metal emissions; (3) some species (e.g. the amphipod, Hyalella azteca and the snail, Amnicola limosa) are being eliminated from lakes due to decreased reproductive success with increased acid loadings; and (4) "buffer variables" and "nutrient variables" explain most, but not all, of the variation in demographic features of benthic invertebrates in acid-stressed lakes enriched lakes, respectively. To date only variations in chemical attributes of the environment have correlated with variations in demographic attributes."

"In addition to the lake acidification studies, I, and many of my graduate students, have studied a variety of other types of environmental impacts. These projects include: determining the effects of pulp and paper effluents on invertebrate community structure in the Ottawa River, Ontario; effects of oil pipeline construction on the benthic community structure of Hodgson Creek, NWT; effects of impoundment on water quality and biota in Guelph Lake; and effects of metal levels on growth and reproduction of selected invertebrates. A biotic analysis (called Ecological Community Analysis) of lotic environments was designed using ecological tolerances and requirements of numerically dominant macrobenthic taxa. The technique was successfully applied to the Speed River and compared to several other existing biotic indices."

"With the introductions of the zebra and quagga mussels, I am now examining the effects of biotic attributes on demographic patterns of native organisms, which will hopefully allow me to predict impacts of zebra mussels on zooplankton and benthic communities in more inland lakes. My studies were the first to demonstrate that zebra mussels in the Great Lakes grow twice as fast, live half as long, have a longer reproductive period and have greater population increases than European populations. The mussels also grow twice as fast and have fecundities and population densities that are 3 to 4 orders of magnitude greater than native bivalves in the Great Lakes. These attributes and the mussel's epifaunal habits are strong indicators that the functional feeding habits of the Unionidae will be replaced by the dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes. "

"I have published over 130 papers in refereed journals and conference proceedings, 1 book, 10 chapters in books, 1 book review and numerous non-refereed reports (see below). I am currently writing another book, "Applied Aquatic Ecosystem Concepts", which is currently available in the University of Guelph Bookstore in manuscript form (ISBN 0- 901024-3-1). I normally receive about $100,000 per year for university research projects."

Select publications (there were several more)

Refereed Journal Publications, Published or Accepted:

Books and Chapters in Books:

Other Refereed Contributions:

Government Publications:

Papers in Refereed Conference Proceedings:

Non-Refereed Contributions:

Papers in Conference Proceedings:

Government Publications:

Conference Presentations (Only a few are given from each year):

Thesis titles of Graduate Students of G. L. Mackie:

Papers Read at Conferences:

Awards & Important Personalities                                         Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax Master Homepage

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