Click to view Nova Scotia pageDisclaimer & Copyright Notices
Optimized for the MS Edge


Master Homepage

Major revisions : September 19, 2017

(Note: Most clickable links are visible with a subtle change in colour; though a few links are visible as underlined words as well.)

'In memory of our deceased associates'-(link is opened in a new window)

Primary index:
Overview    Limnology    References    Pollution    Sewage Management    Restoration/Protection
Lake/River Management    Lakes/Rivers-NS    Regulators-NS

Climate change    Individual empowerment    Public Art    Culture

Credits and our history    Knowledge_Videos-(link is opened in a new window)

  • Climate Change Homepage:

    "Thematic implications: recent climatic warming is affecting a wide range of lake ecosystems in diverse and often complex ways across vast geographical regions, and this has added to the complexities of limnological responses to other stressors. As more palaeolimnological studies are completed, meta-analyses of sedimentary profiles can now be used to help disentangle the effects of climate warming from other environmental variables to determine how various components of lake ecosystems are responding to these multiple stressors." (cf. Smol, J.P. 2010. Prof. Dr. John Smol PhD FRSC is a recipient of several national and international scientific awards, inclusive of the Gerhard Herzberg Gold Medal in 2004. The Herzberg Gold Medal is awarded by the NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada) annually for both the sustained excellence and overall influence of research work conducted in Canada in the natural sciences or engineering.)

    What we, as individuals, can do

Individual empowerment:

What we as individuals can do in our own backyards in order to minimize export of typical stressors tohalf hour video downstream lakes/rivers:- Watch a narrative of former Halifax County's Manager of Storm  Drainage in a half-hour video titled, "Environmental Impact on Water Courses" (link is opened in a new window). The recommendations in the video will not remove all the incremental stressors. In practice, we prefer centralized treatment systems along with such  stakeholder action.

Comprehensive municipal stormwater treatment is not a common practice. Laser particle sizing has indicated that a considerable proportion of the particulates in road runoff are less than 10 µm. This size fraction is difficult to capture in most stormwater pollution control devices and has been shown to contain significant quantities of heavy metals, phosphorus, and other stressors which are of concern in aquatic ecosystems. In addition, several stressors are in soluble form which may require centralized tertiary treatment and perpetual maintenance.
"Never doubt that a small group of concerned citizens can change the world.  Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has." ........   Margaret Mead

  • Shalom M. Mandaville Post-Grad Dips. (, Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax (SWCSMH) with varied assistance from our leading scientist-partners (present/past) and other professionals, mostly published/peer reviewed.

  • Overview on our founding and update: We were founded on the express encouragement of the Hon. John Leefe and senior staff of the Nova Scotia Environment Department in 1989. The inaugural invitation was sent to a host of provincial and municipal bodies. Our extensive scientific research, to various degrees, is conducted as volunteers.

  • Select compliments and requests received

  • The Challenge of Change, Our Province, Our Future, Our Choice, March 1991.

Leading references, and illuminating reports by other scientists & consultants worldwide

(Advanced textbooks & popular handbooks in limnology, and lake management; Australia; Canada; India; Malaysia; Miscellaneous leading references; Philippines; South America; Thailand; UNEP; USA; US Department of Defense; U.S. Geological Survey; US National Park Service; also see Select References)

  • USGS (U.S. Geological Survey):-
    1. Microbial Source-Tracking and Detection Techniques
    2. Sauer, J. 2004. Multiyear synthesis of the macroinvertebrate component from 1992 to 2002 for the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program. 2004. Final report submitted to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers from the U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environment Sciences Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin, December 2004. Technical Report LTRMP 2004-T005. 31 pp. + Appendixes A C. (link is opened in a new window)
    3. Wolff, R.H., 2005. Feasibility of using benthic invertebrates as indicators of stream quality in Hawaii: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5079, 78p. (link is opened in a new window)

  • USNPS (US National Park Service):-
    • 1. Rust, J.D., and Troelstrup, Jr., N.H. 2006. Descriptive Analysis of Aquatic Invertebrate Communities in Wadeable and Non-Wadeable Streams of the Northern Great Plains Network. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science, Vol. 85. Pp. 49-61. (link is opened in a new window)
[Return to primary index]


  [Return to primary index]


Eutrophication is the response in water due to overenrichment by nutrients, primarily phosphorus and nitrogen, and can occur under natural or manmade (anthropogenic) conditions. Manmade (or cultural) eutrophication, in the absence of control measures, proceeds at an accelerated rate compared to the natural phenomenon and is one of the main forms of water pollution. The resultant increase in fertility of affected lakes, reservoirs, slow-flowing rivers and certain coastal waters causes symptoms such as algal blooms (with potential toxicity in cases), heavy growth of rooted aquatic plants (macrophytes), algal mats, deoxygenation and, in some cases, unpleasant odour, which often affects most of the vital uses of the water such as water supply, recreation, fisheries (both commercial and recreational), or aesthetics. In addition, lakes become unattractive for bathing, boating and other water oriented recreations. Most often economically and socially important species, such as salmonids decline or disappear and are replaced by coarser fish of reduced economic/social value.

Potential sources of phosphorus:- Phosphorus has been reduced or eliminated in most laundry detergents but there are several other sources as follows:- fertilizers (farm, golf course, residential); animal, pet and bird feces; wastewater treatment plant discharges (WWTP’s do not remove all phosphorus, and the discharge is highly biologically available more so than other sources); overflows/bypasses from WWTPs and pumping stations; high concentration of septic systems within 300 metres of lakes and/or failures; cross connections between sanitary and storm sewer laterals; certain industrial discharges; and high sedimentation. In some lakes, there could be internal loading, i.e., re-suspension, from bottom sediments as well.

[Return to primary index]

Sewage Management

[Return to primary index]

Lake/River Management

[Return to primary index]


  • Homepage
  • Stormwater treatment
  • Lake Water Residence Times

  • Any potential restoration: Emphasis should be on restoring lakes to their pre-cultural (i.e., modelled hindcast) phosphorus concentrations in order to minimize any negative impacts from undue cultural eutrophication. Numerous regulatory agencies have adopted artificially inflated background/threshold values for TP (total phosphorus). Such actions inevitably result in poor quality of lakes including increased algal blooms, some of which may be toxic. They may also have long term negative impacts on human health as extensively reported in the latest literature. Extensive original international peer-reviewed literature has clearly recommended restoring lakes to their natural background values, primarily the limiting nutrient, TP (c.f. OECD, Monitoring, Assessment and Control; 15-year multi peer-consensus studies of 18 countries of the western economies, at 50 institutes):--

    OECD recce

watch a short video
Typical municipalities and provincial environment departments may not mandate stormwater infrastructure to treat post-development stressors due to the long term costs. Hence, an economic (partial) solution in major new developments could be perpetual spreading of stormwater over protected forest land of sufficient depth and area as advised by Prof. Dr. Gordon Ogden III Jr., of the Dalhousie University Biology Dept., Halifax, NS., Canada, and formerly of the Yale University, CT, USA. Prof. Ogden (deceased) was one of our founding members during the 1980's. Click on his photo to watch  a 2:18 minute video.

[Return to primary index]

Lakes/Rivers-Nova Scotia

info iconEmphasis should be on restoring lakes to their pre-cultural (i.e., modelled hindcast) phosphorus concentrations in order to minimize any negative impacts from undue cultural eutrophication. Our models have not been calibrated for highly coloured lakes (DOC > 10 mg/l) due to humic and fulvic acids. Such lakes may have relatively high background phosphorus concentrations. But in some cases, it may be uneconomic/impractical to achieve such restoration.

[Return to primary index]


[Return to primary index]

We salute the Chebucto Community Net (CCN) of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada for hosting our web site, and we applaud its volunteers for their devotion in making `CCN' the best community net in the world

Shalom M. Mandaville